Scientific and Economic Background on DICE models

(February 3, 2020)

DICE 2016

The DICE 2016R2 model is available in GAMS code from August 2017 (DICE-2016R2-083017.gms), click here. This version can be run as baseline and optimized simply by setting that control variable at the top of the program. Other scenarios (such as temperature limits) require setting limits in the program itself.

(A slightly revised version is used for the Nobel lecture and article, DICE-2016R3. This mainly differs in moving to 2018 prices.)

An Excel version from a slightly earlier version (DICE-2016R) is available as well. Note that this is derived from the GAMS version and is not the authoritative version. It does not contain the optimization at present. The damage function is slightly different from R2. Click here for the model.

This model is the background for several papers on climate change. These are:

-          Estimates of the social cost of carbon (PNAS).

-          A full model description and estimates of uncertainties.

-          An analysis of the evolution of the DICE model from 1992 to 2017.



DICE User's Manual

The User's Manual is available, click here. This contains a full description of the 2013 model. Changes between 2013 and 2016 are described in the PNAS paper.

DICE 2013


The prior version of the DICE model was DICE-2013R. This is no longer supported, but it is available as below.

This can be run both as a GAMS program. The Excel version has not been corrected to the 2013R version.

There are two GAMS versions of the 2013R model (for archival purposes, this is DICE2013Rv2_102213_vanilla_v24b.gms).

  • The "Vanilla" version can be run without any subroutines. It contains only the baseline and the optimal scenarios. It produces output which has the major variables of the model. For the Vanilla version, click here.
  • The other flavor is the "RockyRoad" version. This has six scenarios, which can be run in any combination. The RockyRoad version requires both a Mothership and the Satellites. The Mothership and the Satellites are in the following zip folder, click here. For instructions on how to use, see the ReadMe file.